Hazard made his international debut in 2008 and scored 33 times in 126 appearances. He helped Belgium reach the 2018 World Cup semi-finals, where they lost to eventual champions France, and beat England in the third-placed play-off.
"I have decided to put an end to my international career. The succession is ready," Hazard wrote on Instagram.
"A page turns today... Thank you for your love. Thank you for your unparalleled support. Thank you for all this happiness shared since 2008... I will miss you."
Belgium coach Roberto Martinez (49) also stepped down from his role last Thursday following a disappointing tournament in Qatar for the team ranked second in the world.
Hazard, who won the Premier League and Europa League twice among other major honours in seven seasons at Chelsea, has struggled since his move to Real Madrid in 2019.
He has won the Champions League and two LaLiga titles but scored only seven times in all competitions during his time in the Spanish capital.