Katoto went off injured in the 17th minute of Thursday's match, with coach Corinne Diacre saying after the game that she had sprained her knee.
The French soccer federation said scans carried out on Friday confirmed a sprain in her right knee and damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).
The 23-year-old has scored 26 goals in 32 appearances for France, including a goal in their 5-1 win over Italy in their opening match of this year's Euros.
She was voted the best player in the French first division last season.
The French are top of Group D with six points following wins over Belgium and Italy, and have advanced to the quarter-finals alongside England and Germany.
France's final game of the group stage is against Iceland on Monday.